Fabio Quartararo has a golden opportunity to claim back-to-back victories after taking pole for an Andalusia Grand Prix that Marc Marquez will sit out on Sunday.
Quartararo claimed a second successive pole in Jerez despite Maverick Vinales clocking a faster lap than the MotoGP championship leader on Saturday.
Vinales will have to settle for second place on the grid, as the Monster Energy Yamaha rider exceeded track limits on what he thought was a pole-clinching circuit.
Quartararo celebrated a maiden victory in the premier class in the season-opening Spanish Grand Prix last weekend and will have a great chance to increase his lead.
The Petronas Yamaha rider's lap of one minute, 37.007 seconds was enough for him to start ahead of Vinales, with Francesco Bagnaia third in what will be his maiden front-row spot after progressing from a Q1 that Marquez only appeared in briefly.
Marquez showed great courage to get back on his bike for FP3 and qualifying just four days after undergoing surgery on the broken arm he sustained in a crash at the same track last Sunday.
The world champion, who had a titanium plate fitted in his right arm, completed 10 laps in FP4 but soon returned to the garage after going out for Q1.
Repsol Honda later revealed that the six-time world champion will not be risked in a race that will see Valentino Rossi begin in fourth position
Miguel Oliveira sealed his best qualifying result of fifth with a blistering final lap, while Franco Morbidelli will also be on the second row after advancing from Q1.
1. Fabio Quartararo (Petronas Yamaha) 1:37.007
2. Maverick Vinales (Monster Energy Yamaha) +0.095s
3. Francesco Bagnaia (Pramac Racing) +0.169s
4. Valentino Rossi (Monster Energy Yamaha) +0.335s
5. Miguel Oliveira (Red Bull KTM Tech 3) +0.337s
6. Franco Morbidelli (Petronas Yamaha) +0.405s
7. Jack Miller (Pramac Racing) +0.416s
8. Takaaki Nakagami (LCR Honda) +0.457s
9. Brad Binder (Red Bull KTM Factory Racing) +0.589s
10. Joan Mir (Team SUZUKI ECSTAR) +0.593s