Virat Kohli steered India into a first-innings lead under the floodlights after Bangladesh were bowled out for just 106.
Henry Nicholls was struck on the head by a sharp Jofra Archer bouncer, but he remained at the crease for the closing moments of day two.
A carefully crafted century from David Warner suggests a return to form for a batsman who, by his own admission, flopped in the Ashes.
England fell from 277-4 to 353 all out in the first Test against New Zealand and Jack Leach conceded the tourists should have scored more.
David Warner's 22nd Test hundred and Joe Burns' 97 put Australia firmly in control heading into day three.
The dismissal of captain Kane Williamson saw New Zealand reach 144-4 at the close of the second day in Mount Maunganui.
India made the right call to delay their first foray into day-night Test cricket, according to captain Virat Kohli.
Babar Azam fell cheaply as Pakistan were bowled out on the opening day at the Gabba, with Josh Hazlewood getting his man.
England put themselves in a strong position on day one against New Zealand, who are eager to snuff out the threat of Ben Stokes on Friday.
Mitchell Starc claimed four wickets and Pat Cummins finished with three as Pakistan were bowled out for 240 at the Gabba on Thursday.