Fabio Quartararo became the youngest rider to claim back-to-back MotoGP poles as championship leader Marc Marquez could only manage fourth at Assen.
Petronas Yamaha star Quartararo clocked a lap record of one minute 32.017 seconds to hold off the challenges of Maverick Vinales and Alex Rins in qualifying for the Dutch TT on Saturday.
Rookie Quartararo, who recently underwent arm surgery, also started from the front at the Catalunya Grand Prix and finished second behind Marquez.
Vinales claimed second on his final lap, but was still 0.140secs behind the pace-setter, while Valentino Rossi was down in 14th after missing out on Q2.
Ducati's Andrea Dovizioso struggled to make his mark and will have to start from 11th spot, denting his hopes of narrowing the 37-point gap to Marquez in the overall standings.
1. Fabio Quartararo (Petronas Yamaha) 1:32.017secs
2. Maverick Vinales (Monster Energy Yamaha) +0.140s
3. Alex Rins (Suzuki) +0.441s
4. Marc Marquez (Repsol Honda) +0.714s
5. Joan Mir (Suzuki) +1.068
6. Cal Crutchlow (LCR Honda) +1.211s
7. Danilo Petrucci (Ducati) +1.265s
8. Takaaki Nakagami (LCR Honda) +1.278s
9. Franco Morbidelli (Petronas Yamaha) +1.297s
10. Jack Miller (Ducati) +1.306s